03 Sep 2021
What risk mitigation efforts should the prudent employer take before employees return to the workplace?

Italian statutory law provides for a general employers’ duty to guarantee the health and safety of their employees. Article 2087 of the Italian Civil Code, specifies that the employer is required to eliminate the risks present in the workplace in light of the existing technical knowledge and, if this is not possible, to minimise them.

Further employers’ obligations relating to the employees’ health and safety are also provided for by Legislative Decree no. 81/2008 (Consolidated Law on the protection of Health and safety in the workplace).

Considering the statutory requirements, the employer should carry out a risk assessment of the workplace, in order to produce a risk assessment document (Documento Valutazione Rischi or DVR), which describes the risks existing in the workplace, the level of exposure of workers to the risk and the necessary measures to be implemented by the company. This risk assessment is required to consider the potential biological risks deriving from Covid- 19.

In addition employers operating in regions with high Covid-19 transmission rates should carry out deep sanitization of the work premises before re- opening.

Law Decree no. 44 of 2021 introduced a mandatory vaccination for employees and professionals of the health sector.

The recent Law Decree no. 105 of 23rd July 2021, introduced the mandatory requirement of a Covid-19 “Green certification” (a QR code proving either vaccination or recovery from Covid-19 or a recent negative test) to access a series of public services, such as restaurants (with regard to closed spaces); public shows and sports competitions; museums and exhibitions; swimming pools and gyms; fairs and congresses; thermal baths; theme parks; social and cultural centres; casinos and gambling rooms.

Therefore employers operating in this sector should require customers and guests to show their “Green certification”.

Although the “Green certification” is not expressly requested for the access of employees to the workplace, applying the above mentioned general rule of the Italian Civil Code, a prudent employer should consider it as a possible tool to reduce or minimize the risk of contagion in the workplace, especially if other alternatives, like for example remote working, are not possible due to the specific nature of the business.

Providing a “Green certification” will be mandatory as of 1st September 2021 for employees of the education sector.

Who should be involved in the decisions to return to the workplace?

The employer makes the decision in consultation with the Prevention and Protection officer (Responsabile del Servizio per la Prevenzione e Protezione or RSPP); the Company’s Doctor (Medico Competente) and the Workers’ Safety Representative (Rappresentante dei Lavoratori per la Sicurezza or RLS).

What can the prudent employer do to ensure physical distancing in terms of the work space?

The required physical distancing in terms of the work space is 1 metre.  To ensure this employers should: 

  • set maximum number of employees who may  access common working areas ( for example, kitchens canteens; and coffee break points) and establish maximum time limit periods for staying in those areas
  • ensure constant ventilation of the common areas
  • if necessary, consider redesigning the working spaces;
  • schedule entry and exit by workers at staggered times
  • limit to the extent possible the employee’s contact with sub-contractors or outsourced service providers.            


  • encourage virtual meetings and smart working
  • resort to empty/unused rooms and meeting rooms to create workstations
  • increase space between workstations where several workers are working at the same time in the same room.
What can the prudent employer do to ensure physical distancing in temporal terms?

In order to ensure physical distancing, employers are encouraged to set up “staff turnover schemes” (splitting the employees into groups).

The employer may also need to consider changes to the working hours of the employees’ groups, in order to reduce the simultaneous presence of a huge number of employees at the workplace.

What protections should the prudent employer consider implementing, in addition to physical distancing?

A multi-industry union agreement has been signed between national unions and the Italian Government on 14th March 2020 and later updated. In part, this agreement provides that the employer must:

  • provide information to the employees (and to everyone accessing the company premises) regarding Covid-19 protection measures that have been taken.  This information  should be communicated in a written brochure, handed to the relevant persons, or displayed in easily visible places at the company premises. Employees shall also receive specific information about the proper use of PPE;
  • provide employees with hand sanitizer, available at  dispensers  located in visible and highly accessible places
  • ensure the periodical cleaning of any working tools used by the employees (for example, computer keyboards; monitors and  mouse; as well as food and beverage dispensers)
  • provide employees with appropriate PPE ( for example,  face masks and  disposable gloves.)
  • ensure daily cleaning of the company premises and sanitization on a regular basis; and
  • form  a company-level committee (comitato aziendale), to monitor the employers’ compliance with the provisions of the multi-industry union agreement.

Please see here.


  • encourage frequent hand cleaning with soap and water
  • As mentioned above, requiring all or some employees to show a Covid-19 “Green certifications” to access the workplace can be a valid tool to reduce the risk of infection in closed and potentially crowded spaces
How can an employer screen its employees, including temperature testing, COVID-19 testing and questioning? 

Employers are allowed to take the employee’s temperature before they enter the company premises and to deny access to any employee whose temperature is higher than 37,5° Celsius.

In screening, in addition to employment law obligations, the employer must comply with Data Protection obligations. Specific guidelines provided for by the above multi-industry union agreement and by the Data Protection Authority apply in order to ensure a proportional processing and storage of such data by the employer.

Please refer to the following links here and here (see paragraph “FAQ -Trattamento dei dati nel contesto lavorativo pubblico e privato nell’ambito dell’emergenza sanitaria”).

In circumstances where an employee tests positive to Covid-19, before allowing him/her to return to the company premises, the employer shall request that the employee provides a medical certificate, confirming that the employee has tested negative to the virus.

The employer is also allowed to screen the employees (with  swabs or blood tests) on a voluntary basis.

The employer must require that any employee who experiences Covid-19 symptoms promptly informs the HR Department. Breach of this obligation by the employee may result in disciplinary proceedings.


  • consider entering into agreements with clinics, aimed at providing employees with a test service upon request
  • in case the employer requires a Covid-19 “Green certification” to access the workplace, it is not recommendable to keep track of the data acquired day by day
What are the requirements regarding travel – either to or from the office or business travel?

The multi-industry union agreement signed between national unions and the Italian Government has temporarily prohibited any business travel within or outside the Italian territory.

However, such prohibition exclusively refers to those activities which are complementary to the company’s core business. Business travel which refers to the company’s core business may be permitted, on a case by case assessment basis, as long as all due health and safety protection measures are adopted.


  • encourage the use of private transport or shuttles
How does the prudent employer decide which employees should return to the workplace?

In deciding which employees should return to the workplace , employers should consider the company’s organizational and productive needs, and those functions which require the  physical presence of an employee. The immunization proven by a “Green certificate” can also be a criteria.

Employers are also encouraged to favor smartworking if and when possible.


  • consider allowing for volunteers to return to work
  • consider giving preference to those who can show a “Green certificate”
What if an employee refuses to return to the workplace?

Generally, employees are not entitled to refuse to return to the workplace unless an explicit prohibition has been provided for by the relevant Government Authorities (i.e. national, regional or local authorities).

Such behaviour could therefore entitle the employer to start disciplinary proceedings.

What other considerations should the prudent employer be thinking about at this time?

In addition to the above, the employer should be informed and comply with regional or local guidelines or requirements for back-to-work, as well as specific obligations provided for by trade associations and trade unions at a sectoral level.

What are the safety and employment issues for consideration regarding the vaccines?

At the end of August 2021, the percentage of vaccinated people (at least one dose) beyond the age of 12 is in Italy around 80%. However, there is open discussion about the possibility that the Italian Government could mandate vaccinations. One of the topics at the forefront is whether employers can make the COVID-19 vaccination (or at least providing a Covid-19 “Green Certification”) mandatory for certain employees once it is established that a genuine need for vaccination exists for a specific employee, or category of employees to effectively perform their required tasks. Currently, a failure to get the vaccine or to show a “Green Certification” may be a case of “lack of fitness to work.” Indeed, an unreasonable and unjustified refusal on the part of the employee to be vaccinated at the request of the employer may be even viewed as a disciplinary issue, in line with employment case law in Italy with regard to ensuring employees’ health and safety.

Under art. 2087 of the Italian Civil Code, an employer is required to “take all necessary measures in order to protect the physical integrity of workers.” While art. 32, paragraph 2, of the Italian Constitution provides that “no one can be obliged to have a medical treatment, except by virtue of a provision of law,” this fundamental Constitutional right relates to the relationship between the State and its citizens, and is not directly applicable to the employer-employee relationship.

The point is not whether an employee is free to decide whether or not to be vaccinated against COVID-19, despite any request from an employer, but what are the consequences to the employer-employee relationship in the event that the employee refuses the vaccination. In particular, this could have consequences on the employee’s ability to execute work duties under the employment contract and also potential liabilities for the company with respect to protecting the health and safety of other workers.

In the end, the question of mandatory vaccinations can be decided by the Government, or alternatively companies, workers and trade unions, which will have to collaborate to create the conditions for a full return to the workplace in a safe manner, which may include adopting reasonable mandatory vaccination rules for employees.

What issues arise in introducing Hybrid working?

The same issues outlined above are applicable in case of Hybrid working models.


Attilio Pavone
Head of Italy
+39 02 86359 417